Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria

Inclusion Criteria

Group 1 (PTSD Subjects):

  1. Male or female aged 30-65 years
  2. Meets DSM-V criteria for PTSD from at least 1 year prior to enrollment
  3. Have a level of understanding of the English language sufficient to agree to all tests and examinations required by the study and must be able to participate fully in the informed consent process

Group 2 (Trauma Control Subjects):

  1. Male or female aged 30-65 years;
  2. Meets DSM-V criteria A of PTSD without satisfying criteria for a PTSD diagnoses according to the DSM-V from at least 1 year prior to enrollment
  3. Have a level of understanding of the English language sufficient to agree to all tests and examinations required by the study and must be able to participate fully in the informed consent process.

Group 3 (Healthy Control Subjects):

  1. Male or female aged 30-65 years;
  2. Does not meet for any current or past psychiatric diagnoses as defined by DSM-V criteria
  3. Have a level of understanding of the English language sufficient to agree to all tests and examinations required by the study and must be able to participate fully in the informed consent process

Exclusion criteria

  1. Clinical history of atherosclerotic disease (prior myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral artery disease)
  2. Clinical history or presence of significant central nervous system and neurological diseases (e.g., TBI, multiple sclerosis)
  3. History of class 3 or 4 heart failure, severe life-threatening arrhythmia (e.g., ventricular tachycardia) or severe mitral or aortic valvular disease
  4. Current, primary psychiatric disorder other than PTSD,
  5. History or current schizophrenia or primary psychotic disorders (e.g. schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder)
  6. Suicidal ideation with any intent or plan as measured by a Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale [C-SSRS] score of greater than 3 during the past month at the time of screening
  7. Current or history of a major cognitive disorder or evidence of cognitive impairment as assessed by a score of the Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) of <24
  8. Substance Use Disorder within the past 6 months;
  9. Hypnotic medications used PRN are allowed except within 24 hours of the scan assessment day
  10. Benzodiazepine medications used PRN (not to exceed 2 mg of lorazepam daily) are allowed except within 12 hours of the scan assessment day
  11. Positive urine-toxicology (u-tox) screening for illicit substances
  12. Alcohol consumption above the NIAA cut-off for moderate alcohol intake (maximum 14 drinks for men and 7 drinks for women per week)
  13. Concomitant use of high intensity statins (atorvastatin ≥ 40 mg/day; rosuvastatin > 20 mg/day; pitavastatin ≥ 2 mg/day)
  14. Concomitant systemically-administered anti-inflammatory agents for chronic inflammatory conditions (e.g., methotrexate or anti-inflammatory biologics). On the other hand, NSAIDS, aspirin, and topical or inhaled steroids are permitted;
  15. Chronic inflammatory conditions including but not limited to psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis;
  16. Clinically significant abnormalities of laboratories or advanced systemic disease (i.e. malignancy)
  17. Uncontrolled diabetes within the past 6 months, as documented by an A1C > 7.5;
  18. Women who are pregnant;
  19. Any contraindications to MRI, including claustrophobia, any trauma or surgery which may have left magnetic material in the body, magnetic implants or pacemakers, and inability to lie still for 1 hour or more